-- more correctly called uroliths, are rock-like
collections of minerals that form in the urinary bladder. They may
occur as a large, single stone or as dozens of stones the size of
large grains of sand or pea gravel. Stones that form in the bladder
may pass into the uretha. All dogs can develop bladder stones.
Stones in the bladder eventually cause painful urination and blood
in the urine. Your dog may cry in pain, especially if pressure
is applied to their stomach..
CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS -- is commonly mistaken for Parvovirus, but needs different treatment. It's a BACTERIAL
imbalance in the digestive tract. It is a disease that produces
acute infectious diarrhea in puppies and kittens. This is NOT a new form of Parvo.
Parvo tests will show a LOW positive & subsequent tests will
continue to show low positives, will be inconclusive, or will give
erratic results. This disease is so similar to Parvo, that some dogs
have tested in the low positive for Parvo. But they do not have
Parvo, and it has been recommended that three parvo tests
are needed to exclude Parvo.
This disease can be tested for specifically, so if you have an
affected dog that appears to have Parvo, but in your mind know that,
that could not be possible, have them tested for "Camby".
It is important to note that this disease can be transferred between
humans, dogs, cats and other livestock. It starts with fecal mucus sheath & continues to get progressively softer until it is
watery and contains blood. It then becomes explosive. Vomiting may accompany
and may or may not also contain blood. Feces have a sweet/flowery
aroma along with a "slaughterhouse on a summer day" smell
(similar to parvo diarrhea but with a floral hint). Feces are usually
mustard colored. Dogs dehydrate at an astounding rate.
Dogs are also at risk of intussusception .
-- Coccidiosis is a diarrhea disease caused by a species
of coccidia commonly found in the feces of puppies, and
occasionally, adult dogs. Coccidia are not worms; they
are microscopic parasites which live within cells of the
intestinal lining. Because they live in the intestinal tract
and commonly cause diarrhea, they are often confused with worms.
-- Collapsing Trachea is a problem common to Toy
Breeds. The trachea is a long tube that carries air from the neck to the chest.
It is reinforced with rings of cartilage that help keep it rigid as air moves in
and out of the tube. When the cartilage weakens, the trachea may collapse while
the dog is breathing. While many affected dogs do fine, this isn't the case in
all of the Toy's. The round cartilage rings may flatten, forcing the dog to try
to breathe through an extremely narrow opening. The symptoms of the
condition---shortness fo breath, coughing, fatigue---usually appear after the
age of five, although they can begin as early as birth. Generally young dogs
tolerate collapding trachea pretty well until they get older.
-- Cushing's disease is the result of the
overproduction of cortison, an natural steriod hormone, by the adrenal glands.
It is rare in dogs under five years old. In about 80 percent of the dogs the
disease is caused by a lesion in the pituitary gland at the base of the brain
that overstimulates the adrenals, while in about 20 percent of cases one of the
adrenal glands itself will have a tumor that excretes cortisol independent of
what's happening in the body. About half of those tumors are maliganant and
spread, and about half of them are benign and generally tend to stay
The symptoms of Cushing's disease can also appear if a dog is
taking steriods for a medical condition and ends up with too much in his system.
Steroids are found in a lot of creams, eye ointments and ear ointments, and if
you get overzealous with their administration, that can cause these signs as
well. When you stop using the products, these symptoms will go away. The
typical signs of Cushing's disease are increased thirst and urination, panting,
hair loss (usually on the trunk) and weakness.
-- Giardiasis is caused by a protozoan of the giardia
species. Giardia are one-celled organisms that live in
the small intestines of dogs and cats. Dogs get the
infection from drinking water from streams or other sources
contaminated with infective oocysts. Young dogs can develop
diarrhea that may be acute or chronic, intermittent or persistent,
and may be accompanied by weight loss.
HGE or HEMORRHAGIC GASTRIC ENTERITIS--- is particularly
dangerous to the toy and smaller breed dogs. Any kind of bacterial diarrhea can
quickly dehydrate a dog, and the tinies are at greater risk, as they have little
weight to lose before they are dehydrated and need IV rehydration. Your dog can
get infected anywhere. Then it can be from 2-10 days after exposure, that your
dog can come down with this problem. The symptoms start with vomiting, lethargy,
refusing to eat, and progressing to mucous covered stool, loose stools, severe
diarrhea and bloody diarrhea. It is important to have a culture done first so
that you know exactly what bacteria you are treating, and get them started on
antibiotics. DO NOT waste time, especially with the tiny toy dogs , as they do
not have the spare fluids to lose thru diarrhea, especially bloody
HYPOGLYCEMIA-- If you are going to become a toy dog owner you
will want to familiarize yourself to the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia
is when the blood sugar levels (glucose) fall well below normal.
Glucose is what the body uses as fuel and is necessary for the
brain tissue and muscles to function. Hypoglycemia is often seen in
toy breeds, and frequently in young toy puppies. It
can cause your puppy to become confused, disoriented, drowsy, have
the shivers, stagger about, collapse, fall into a coma, or have
seizures. Typical signs are listlessness, depression,
staggering gait, muscular weakness, and tremors -- especially of
the face. Puppies with a severe drop in the blood sugar develope seizures or become stuperous and go into a coma.
Some puppies may only exhibit weakness or a wobbly gait, and
occasionally a puppy that seemed just fine is found in a coma.
Most of the time the symptoms can be controlled by eating, or by
giving some glucose such as honey water to the puppy. If not
treated it can result in death.
Leptospirosis is a disease is caused by spiral shaped bacteria called
leptospires. It occurs worldwide and can affect humans as well as many
wild and domestic animals, including dogs and cats. Dogs become infected
by leptospires when abraded skin comes into contact with the urine of an
The bacteria can enter the body through skin or mucous membranes (eyes,
nose, or mouth), especially if the skin is broken from a cut or scratch.
Drinking contaminated water can also cause infection. The
organisms quickly spread through the bloodstream leading to fever,
joint pain, and general malaise which can last up to a week.
LIVER SHUNT-- Also called Portosystemic shunts,
are abnormal veins that allow blood from the intestine to bypass
the liver. Normally, blood flows from the intestines to the
liver. where the by-products of digestion are metabolized. When there is a
shunt, blood bypasses the liver with disastrous and often fatal consequences.
Ammonia and other toxins are not metabolized or removed from the
circulation, resulting in signs of hepatic encephalopathy (type of
brain inflammation caused by high levels of ammonia and other
toxins in the blood). Symptoms can be dramatic, including stunted growth, persistent vomiting and
diarrhea, weight loss and seizures. But they can also be subtle--increased
urination, thirst and salivation. Liver shunts are operable, but not always
successfully. The errant blood vessels may be inside or outside of the liver,
and the ones inside the liver are much more difficult to repair
is an obstructive disorder involving the
lymphatic system of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in Protien-Losing
Enteropathy. As part of the normal circulatory system, lymph
fluid is collected from tissues throughout the body and returned to the
blood by way of the lymphatic vessels. In intestinal lymphangiectasia,
normal drainage is blocked so that intestinal lymph
leaks into the intestines instead of being returned to
the circulation. This results in the loss of proteins,
lymphocytes ( a type of white blood cell), and lipids
or fats into the stool.
Intestinal lymphangiectasia may be congenital (present from birth) due to
malformation of the lymphatic system, or it may be acquired in association
with another disease.
-- Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas, an
elongated gland that serves many functions in the process of digestion and
metabolism. When digestive enzymes that normally are excreted into the
intestinal tract are activated in the pancreas instead, they cause inflammation.
Foods high in fat, or a lot of greasy table scraps, tend to trigger
This is a serious, potentially life-threatening disease.
Mortality is upwards of 20 to 25 percent. Affected animals will have severe
abdominal pain, loss of appetite, lethargy, depression, vomiting and diarrhea.
Dehydration is also a danger.
PARVOVIRUS -- Canine
parvovirus is an acute, highly contagious disease of dogs that
was first described in the early 1970's. The disease is
transmitted by oral contact with infected feces. Parvo
affects dogs of all ages, but most cases occur in pupies 6 to 20
weeks of age. Parvovirus is characterized by
severe, bloody diarrhea and vomiting, high fever and lethargy. The
diarrhea is particularly foul smelling and is sometimes yellow in
color. Parvo can also attack a dog's heart causing congestive
heart failure. This complication can occur months or years after
an apparent recovery from the intestinal form of the disease.
Puppies who survive parvo infection usually remain somewhat
un-healthy and weak for life.
(slippping kneecaps, slipping stifle*)--is a
relatively common condition in the Yorkie and often results in the intermittent
lifting of one or both hindlegs when walking or running. It is possibly
recessively inherited and therefore it is sensible not to breed from afflicted
animals. Today, veterinary orthopaedics are such that corrective surgery is
usually extremely successful.
*- Stifel--the hindleg above the
PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS (PDA) --
is in every mammal at birth. It is a duct that blood
flows through while the fetus is still using the mothers oxygen
supply. When the baby is born and starts to breath this duct
is supposed to close. It should close with in a few hours to
a few days. PDA is the most common congential heart defect in dogs.
It is usually detected by your veterinarian
when he hears a continous machinery heart murmur during a check-up.
Then there are tests that are done to confirm it. All
of the information that I have gathered give one to several,
reasons that it might not. Some are genetic, and some
are classified as random events. Some are even classified as
is a fancy way of saying that protein is being
lost from the body through the intestine. This is a serious problem as the
body's proteins are not easily replaced and the only way to replace them
involves the absorption of protein constituents (the amino acids that make
up proteins) from the intestine. If the intestine is actually leaking
nutrients out instead of absorbing them in, the result is a nutritional
disaster. Protein Losing Enteropathy is an inherited immune-mediated
disease of the intestines. Many dogs don't show clinical signs of this
disease until they are over the age of 5. Abnormal fluid accumulation may
occur secondary to decreased protein levels in the blood.
REVERSE SNEEZING (Pharyngeal Gag Reflex*)--is a dramatic, rapid inhalation and exhalation of air
through the nasopharynx. Dogs may do this when they have a mild
irritation at the back of their throat. Often confused with
seizuring or gasping for air, it is usually a harmless event.
Reverse sneezing isn't
really a health problem, but something that dog owners should be
aware of as it is very common in toy breeds. It is
characterized by honking, hacking or a snorting sounds. It usually
happens when a dog is excited or can sometimes happen after
drinking, eating, running around, or while pulling on the leash.
The dog will usually extend his/her neck while gasping inwards
with a distinctive snorting sound, it is reverse sneezing.
Usually by gently rubbing the throat of your dog, the spasms
will stop after they swallow a couple of times and that's the end
of it. Other dogs respond well by taking them outside for some
fresh air. Or you can plug the nose holes forcing the dog to
breathe through her mouth and that will usually stop an episode as
Reverse sneezing is a harmless condition and medical attention
is not necessary. It is important to not confuse reverse sneezing
with a collapsing trachea.